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养老金统账结合漏洞多:缺乏增值能力

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年11月13日 13:22:09
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(  养)(老)(金)(独)(木)(难)(支)(
  筹)(资)(和)(支)(出)(两)(端)(均)(受)(压)(的)(养)(老)(金)(制)(度)(,必)(然)(要)(建)(立)("多)(支)(柱)("体)(系)(,问)(题)(是)(,建)(立)(何)(种)(形)(式)(的)("三)(支)(柱)("体)(系)(?现)(有)(的)("统)(账)(结)(合)("制)(度)(如)(何)(向)("三)(支)(柱)("过)(渡)(?历)(史)(上)(遗)(留)(下)(来)(的)(隐)(性)(债)(务)(怎)(么)(解)(决)(?
  □本)(刊)(记)(者)(相)(惠)(莲)(/文)(
  2015年)(,平)(均)(每)(2.87名)(职)(工)(赡)(养)(1名)(退)(休)(者)(。
  在)(黑)(龙)(江)(、吉)(林)(、青)(海)(等)(8省)(,职)(工)(养)(老)(金)(可)(支)(付)(月)(数)(低)(于)(10个)(月)(,黑)(龙)(江)(仅)(1个)(月)(。
  与)(上)(年)(相)(比)(,2015年)(20省)(的)(可)(支)(付)(月)(数)(发)(生)(下)(滑)(……
  人)(社)(部)(社)(会)(保)(险)(事)(业)(管)(理)(中)(心)(发)(布)(的)(《中)(国)(社)(会)(保)(险)(发)(展)(年)(度)(报)(告)(2015》披)(露)(了)(上)(述)(数)(据)(,从)(侧)(面)(反)(映)(出)(中)(国)(养)(老)(金)(体)(系)(的)(紧)(绷)(。
  虽)(然)(全)(国)(平)(均)(可)(支)(付)(月)(数)(为)(17个)(月)(,但)(在)(筹)(资)(端)(,28%的)(缴)(费)(率)(在)(全)(球)(处)(于)(高)(位)(,经)(济)(下)(行)(又)(要)(求)(降)(费)(以)(减)(轻)(企)(业)(负)(担)(,扩)(大)(覆)(盖)(面)(的)(空)(间)(接)(近)(用)(尽)(;在)(支)(出)(端)(,替)(代)(率)(持)(续)(下)(降)(,赡)(养)(比)(继)(续)(恶)(化)(,减)(少)(支)(出)(几)(乎)(不)(可)(能)(。
  两)(端)(受)(压)(的)(养)(老)(金)(制)(度)(,必)(然)(要)(建)(立)("多)(支)(柱)("体)(系)(。
  问)(题)(是)(,建)(立)(何)(种)(形)(式)(的)("三)(支)(柱)("体)(系)(?现)(有)(的)("统)(账)(结)(合)("制)(度)(如)(何)(向)("三)(支)(柱)("过)(渡)(?历)(史)(上)(遗)(留)(下)(来)(的)(隐)(性)(债)(务)(怎)(么)(解)(决)(?
  统)(账)(结)(合)(漏)(洞)(多)(
  国)(际)(普)(遍)(的)(养)(老)(金)(体)(系)(大)(致)(分)(三)(部)(分)(:政)(府)(主)(导)(的)(公)(共)(养)(老)(保)(险)(是)(第)(一)(支)(柱)(,大)(多)(采)(用)(现)(收)(现)(付)(的)(筹)(资)(模)(式)(;雇)(主)(建)(立)(的)(补)(充)(养)(老)(计)(划)(是)(第)(二)(支)(柱)(,完)(全)(累)(积)(;自)(我)(积)(累)(的)(个)(人)(储)(蓄)(型)(养)(老)(计)(划)(是)(第)(三)(支)(柱)(。
  1997年)(的)(养)(老)(金)(制)(度)(改)(革)(后)(,中)(国)(的)(基)(本)(养)(老)(金)(采)(取)(统)(账)(结)(合)(的)(模)(式)(,也)(就)(是)(既)(包)(含)(现)(收)(现)(付)(制)(的)(社)(会)(统)(筹)(部)(分)(,由)(年)(轻)(一)(代)(缴)(费)(来)(赡)(养)(退)(休)(者)(,也)(包)(含)(累)(积)(制)(的)(个)(人)(账)(户)(,职)(工)(存)(钱)(为)(自)(己)(的)(未)(来)(做)(储)(备)(。
  然)(而)(,这)(种)(部)(分)(累)(积)(制)(在)(1999年)(进)(入)(老)(龄)(化)(社)(会)(后)(,面)(临)(危)(机)(。不)(断)(增)(加)(的)(老)(年)(人)(数)(量)(带)(来)(巨)(大)(的)(支)(付)(压)(力)(,社)(会)(统)(筹)(不)(足)(以)(支)(撑)(,个)(人)(账)(户)(的)(8%也)(被)(挪)(用)(于)(发)(放)(当)(期)(待)(遇)(,制)(度)(整)(体)(更)(接)(近)(现)(收)(现)(付)(制)(,这)(是)(绝)(大)(多)(数)(国)(人)(唯)(一)(拥)(有)(的)(养)(老)(金)(支)(柱)(。
  在)(人)(口)(红)(利)(期)(,单)(一)(的)(现)(收)(现)(付)(制)(可)(以)(平)(顺)(运)(行)(,让)(老)(人)(分)(享)(到)(经)(济)(发)(展)(的)(果)(实)(,一)(旦)(进)(入)(老)(龄)(化)(社)(会)(,风)(险)(却)(暴)(露)(无)(遗)(。突)(出)(表)(现)(为)(基)(本)(养)(老)(金)(能)(提)(供)(的)(替)(代)(率)(走)(低)(,从)(1997年)(的)(70.79%下)(降)(到)(2014年)(的)(45%,这)(接)(近)(了)(国)(际)(劳)(工)(组)(织)(划)(定)(的)(警)(戒)(线)(。
  养)(老)(金)(独)(木)(难)(支)(之)(下)(,包)(括)(延)(迟)(退)(休)(、各)(级)(财)(政)(补)(贴)(增)(长)(等)(举)(措)(可)(缓)(解)(眼)(前)(待)(遇)(发)(放)(的)(问)(题)(,但)(不)(足)(以)(弥)(补)(体)(制)(的)(漏)(洞)(。
  比)(如)(,基)(本)(养)(老)(金)(结)(余)(往)(往)(存)(于)(银)(行)(或)(购)(买)(国)(债)(,缺)(乏)(保)(值)(增)(值)(的)(能)(力)(,跑)(不)(赢)(CPI,更)(跑)(不)(赢)(工)(资)(增)(长)(率)(。2015年)(,职)(工)(养)(老)(金)(的)(收)(益)(率)(为)(3.1%,已)(是)(2009年)(以)(来)(的)(最)(高)(值)(。
  中)(国)(社)(科)(院)(世)(界)(社)(保)(研)(究)(中)(心)(主)(任)(郑)(秉)(文)(近)(期)(指)(出)(,2015年)(8月)(基)(本)(养)(老)(保)(险)(基)(金)(投)(资)(的)(文)(件)(发)(布)(,"一)(年)(过)(去)(,除)(了)(早)(前)(的)(广)(东)(和)(山)(东)(,几)(乎)(没)(有)(什)(么)(拿)(出)(来)(的)(钱)("。
  当)(下)(的)(基)(本)(养)(老)(金)(制)(度)(如)(同)(一)(个)(漏)(斗)(,有)(限)(的)(基)(金)("漏)("向)(各)(个)(环)(节)(:缴)(费)(年)(限)(短)(,许)(多)(人)(缴)(纳)(至)(最)(低)(限)(度)(15年)(后)(就)(选)(择)(断)(缴)(,坐)(等)(退)(休)(领)(取)(养)(老)(金)(,一)(些)(地)(方)(政)(府)(允)(许)(人)(们)(以)(不)(足)(的)(金)(额)(一)(次)(性)(缴)(纳)(养)(老)(金)(,这)(种)(短)(期)(行)(为)(将)(风)(险)(推)(向)(不)(久)(的)(将)(来)(;参)(保)(人)(退)(休)(后)(若)(活)(过)(139个)(月)(,领)(完)(自)(己)(在)(个)(人)(账)(户)(存)(下)(的)(资)(金)(,被)(允)(许)(继)(续)(从)(社)(会)(统)(筹)(的)(盘)(子)(里)(领)(取)(和)(原)(来)(相)(同)(的)(待)(遇)(。
  此)(外)(,大)(量)(企)(业)(在)(缴)(纳)(社)(保)(时)(隐)(瞒)(员)(工)(的)(真)(实)(收)(入)(、做)(小)(缴)(费)(基)(数)(,以)(减)(少)(所)(需)(缴)(纳)(的)(社)(保)(费)(用)(。根)(据)(51社)(保)(网)(的)(调)(研)(,75%的)(企)(业)(未)(按)(照)(职)(工)(真)(实)(的)(工)(资)(实)(际)(核)(定)(,36%的)(企)(业)(统)(一)(按)(最)(低)(基)(数)(来)(申)(报)(社)(保)(。真)(实)(的)(缴)(费)(率)(远)(不)(及)(名)(义)(上)(的)(28%。
  中)(国)(的)(养)(老)(金)(资)(产)(,仅)(仅)(相)(当)(于)(GDP的)(不)(到)(10%,而)(美)(国)(将)(近)(GDP的)(1.5倍)(,OECD国)(家)(也)(相)(当)(于)(77%。
  中)(国)(并)(不)(缺)(储)(蓄)(,居)(民)(储)(蓄)(率)(一)(直)(保)(持)(在)(38%以)(上)(,只)(不)(过)(这)(些)(资)(金)(多)(被)(存)(入)(银)(行)(,并)(没)(有)(通)(过)(制)(度)(安)(排)(成)(为)(养)(老)(的)(储)(备)(。
  强)(制)(征)(缴)(的)(基)(本)(养)(老)(金)(具)(有)(二)(次)(分)(配)(功)(能)(,将)(财)(富)(在)(贫)(富)(人)(群)(之)(间)(转)(移)(,本)(身)(难)(以)(激)(励)(人)(们)(尽)(量)(多)(缴)(纳)(,经)(济)(下)(行)(时)(期)(,又)(不)(可)(能)(强)(制)(企)(业)(更)(多)(缴)(费)(。因)(而)(通)(过)(做)(强)(采)(用)(累)(积)(制)(、权)(益)(清)(晰)(的)(二)(三)(支)(柱)(,鼓)(励)(人)(们)(为)(自)(己)(存)(下)(更)(多)(的)(养)(老)(储)(备)(,成)(为)(现)(实)(选)(择)(。
  一)(二)(三)(支)(柱)(共)(担)(重)(任)(
  中)(国)(在)(补)(充)(养)(老)(制)(度)(上)(并)(不)(是)(一)(张)(白)(纸)(。
  2004年)(,《企)(业)(年)(金)(试)(行)(办)(法)(》推)(出)(,规)(定)(企)(业)(和)(员)(工)(共)(同)(缴)(纳)(企)(业)(年)(金)(,对)(于)(限)(额)(内)(的)(缴)(费)(,员)(工)(和)(企)(业)(都)(能)(享)(受)(免)(税)(待)(遇)(。
  职)(业)(年)(金)(作)(为)(机)(关)(事)(业)(单)(位)(的)(第)(二)(支)(柱)(,管)(理)(办)(法)(正)(在)(征)(求)(意)(见)(中)(。作)(为)(第)(三)(支)(柱)(的)(个)(人)(养)(老)(金)(账)(户)(则)(有)(待)(建)(立)(。
  但)(相)(比)(基)(本)(养)(老)(金)(,企)(业)(年)(金)(的)(覆)(盖)(面)(有)(限)(。
  根)(据)(人)(社)(部)(数)(据)(,2015年)(,有)(2316万)(人)(参)(与)(企)(业)(年)(金)(计)(划)(。这)(意)(味)(着)(,缴)(纳)(职)(工)(养)(老)(保)(险)(的)(人)(中)(仅)(有)(6.5%拥)(有)(第)(二)(支)(柱)(;多)(数)(人)(退)(休)(后)(的)(收)(入)(主)(要)(还)(是)(政)(府)(提)(供)(的)(基)(本)(养)(老)(金)(。
  为)(什)(么)(企)(业)(年)(金)(没)(能)(做)(大)(?首)(都)(经)(贸)(大)(学)(劳)(动)(经)(济)(学)(院)(教)(授)(朱)(俊)(生)(认)(为)(,如)(果)(不)(实)(质)(性)(降)(低)(第)(一)(支)(柱)(的)(缴)(费)(水)(平)(,再)(怎)(么)(提)(供)(税)(收)(优)(惠)(,投)(资)(收)(益)(率)(再)(高)(,都)(不)(足)(以)(给)(企)(业)(充)(分)(动)(力)(来)(建)(立)(年)(金)(。
  企)(业)(年)(金)(的)(发)(展)(还)(受)(制)(于)(税)(收)(条)(件)(。
  401(k)是)(美)(国)(著)(名)(的)(企)(业)(年)(金)(计)(划)(,其)(字)(面)(意)(思)(是)(1978年)(《国)(内)(税)(收)(法)(》新)(增)(的)(第)(401条)(k项)(条)(款)(,美)(国)(的)(养)(老)(金)(政)(策)(往)(往)(跟)(随)(着)(税)(法)(的)(变)(动)(而)(出)(台)(。中)(国)(的)(税)(制)(还)(没)(有)(定)(型)(,未)(实)(行)(综)(合)(所)(得)(税)(制)(,征)(信)(系)(统)(也)(有)(待)(建)(立)(,人)(们)(的)(收)(入)(来)(源)(不)(透)(明)(,投)(资)(后)(不)(交)(资)(本)(利)(得)(税)(,企)(业)(大)(量)(筹)(集)(发)(票)(冲)(销)(避)(税)(。适)(用)(于)(国)(外)(的)(企)(业)(年)(金)(税)(收)(优)(惠)(政)(策)(,在)(国)(内)(的)(激)(励)(效)(果)(会)(打)(折)(。
  企)(业)(年)(金)(被)(戏)(称)(为)("富)(人)(俱)(乐)(部)(",在)(收)(入)(分)(配)(差)(距)(过)(大)(的)(现)(实)(下)(,这)(顶)(帽)(子)(难)(以)(摘)(去)(。
  中)(国)(社)(科)(院)(世)(界)(社)(保)(研)(究)(中)(心)(副)(秘)(书)(长)(齐)(传)(钧)(表)(示)(,即)(使)(给)(了)(税)(优)(,高)(收)(入)(群)(体)(更)(能)(从)(中)(受)(益)(,大)(部)(分)(老)(百)(姓)((50.320,0.00,0.00%)还)(是)(应)(付)(眼)(前)(的)(生)(活)(。"如)(果)(只)(是)(把)(少)(数)(人)(的)(年)(金)(资)(产)(额)(做)(大)(,社)(会)(会)(陷)(入)(分)(裂)(。"
  齐)(传)(钧)(指)(出)(,应)(并)(行)(建)(设)(第)(二)(、第)(三)(支)(柱)(。
  强)(制)(缴)(纳)(的)(职)(业)(年)(金)(将)(覆)(盖)(教)(育)(卫)(生)(等)(12个)(行)(业)(,一)(旦)(建)(立)(,参)(与)(人)(数)(或)(达)(到)(3700万)(人)(,将)(一)(举)(超)(越)(已)(经)(建)(立)(十)(余)(年)(的)(企)(业)(年)(金)(。所)(有)(国)(民)(自)(身)(也)(应)(当)(有)(第)(三)(支)(柱)(的)(个)(人)(养)(老)(金)(账)(户)(,定)(期)(存)(入)(养)(老)(资)(金)(,享)(有)(免)(税)(待)(遇)(。同)(时)(,企)(业)(年)(金)(和)(个)(人)(养)(老)(金)(的)(两)(个)(账)(户)(应)(打)(通)(,员)(工)(在)(离)(职)(后)(能)(将)(此)(前)(累)(积)(的)(年)(金)(转)(移)(到)(个)(人)(养)(老)(金)(账)(户)(中)(,以)(免)(下)(一)(个)(雇)(主)(不)(提)(供)(企)(业)(年)(金)(计)(划)(,从)(而)(发)(生)(损)(失)(。
  典)(型)(的)(养)(老)(金)(第)(三)(支)(柱)(是)(美)(国)(的)(IRA制)(度)(,由)(政)(府)(提)(供)(税)(收)(支)(持)(,个)(人)(自)(愿)(参)(与)(。
  在)(这)(一)(制)(度)(下)(,个)(人)(每)(年)(可)(将)(一)(定)(额)(度)(的)(资)(金)(存)(入)(账)(户)(,并)(自)(主)(、灵)(活)(地)(配)(置)(资)(产)(,在)(缴)(纳)(、投)(资)(或)(领)(取)(环)(节)(享)(受)(一)(定)(的)(免)(税)(政)(策)(。因)(其)(面)(向)(所)(有)(纳)(税)(者)(,自)(谋)(职)(业)(和)(所)(在)(企)(业)(不)(提)(供)(第)(二)(支)(柱)(的)(员)(工)(也)(能)(参)(与)(进)(来)(。
  截)(至)(2015年)(年)(底)(,IRA总)(资)(产)(达)(到)(7.6万)(亿)(美)(元)(,成)(为)(美)(国)(最)(大)(的)(养)(老)(金)(计)(划)(。
  养)(老)(金)(融)(50人)(论)(坛)(秘)(书)(长)(、中)(国)(人)(民)(大)(学)(教)(授)(董)(克)(用)(认)(为)(,由)(于)(年)(长)(者)(还)(没)(有)(开)(始)(向)(二)(三)(支)(柱)(存)(钱)(,三)(个)(支)(柱)(的)(比)(例)(只)(能)(逐)(渐)(变)(化)(,第)(一)(支)(柱)(渐)(渐)(缩)(小)(,第)(二)(支)(柱)(慢)(慢)(扩)(大)(,第)(三)(支)(柱)(赶)(快)(建)(立)(。"一)(二)(三)(支)(柱)(最)(终)(的)(分)(担)(比)(例)(理)(想)(是)(4∶3∶3,整)(体)(的)(替)(代)(率)(达)(到)(70%-80%。"
  强)(制)(公)(积)(金)(设)(想)(
  建)(立)(完)(整)(的)(多)(支)(柱)(体)(系)(需)(要)(时)(日)(,短)(期)(内)(是)(否)(有)(方)(法)(撬)(动)(二)(三)(支)(柱)(的)(发)(展)(?
  越)(来)(越)(多)(学)(者)(提)(出)(制)(度)(合)(并)(的)(建)(议)(,即)(将)("五)(险)(一)(金)("中)(的)(住)(房)(公)(积)(金)(与)(企)(业)(年)(金)(、个)(人)(养)(老)(金)(整)(合)(,三)(者)(均)(为)(产)(权)(清)(晰)(的)(个)(人)(账)(户)(。
  武)(汉)(科)(技)(大)(学)(金)(融)(证)(券)(研)(究)(所)(所)(长)(董)(登)(新)(是)(制)(度)(整)(合)(的)(倡)(议)(者)(。他)(认)(为)(,企)(业)(年)(金)(、职)(业)(年)(金)(、住)(房)(公)(积)(金)(这)("三)(金)("都)(具)(备)(补)(充)(养)(老)(的)(功)(能)(,合)(并)(后)(能)(为)(实)(体)(经)(济)(减)(负)(降)(税)(,减)(轻)(雇)(主)(和)(雇)(员)(负)(担)(,并)(且)(做)(实)(做)(大)(做)(强)(第)(二)(支)(柱)(养)(老)(金)(。
  在)(他)(的)(设)(想)(中)(,这)("三)(金)("未)(来)(可)(整)(合)(为)("强)(制)(公)(积)(金)(",回)(归)(世)(界)(通)(行)(的)(年)(金)(制)(度)(。
  中)(国)(目)(前)(的)(企)(业)(年)(金)(经)(常)(被)(称)(为)("中)(国)(版)(401(k)",在)(缴)(费)(、税)(前)(抵)(扣)(等)(环)(节)(确)(与)(美)(国)(的)(制)(度)(有)(相)(似)(之)(处)(,但)(中)(国)(的)(企)(业)(年)(金)(仅)(有)(养)(老)(一)(项)(功)(能)(,且)(只)(能)(在)(退)(休)(后)(领)(取)(。而)(合)(并)(后)(的)("强)(制)(公)(积)(金)("也)(可)(用)(于)(租)(房)(、医)(疗)(和)(子)(女)(教)(育)(,但)(必)(须)(是)(在)(参)(加)(者)(经)(济)(困)(难)(时)(才)(能)(支)(取)(;同)(时)(还)(允)(许)(发)(放)(比)(银)(行)(利)(率)(稍)(低)(一)(些)(的)(商)(业)(贷)(款)(用)(以)(买)(房)(。
  上)(世)(纪)(90年)(代)(,住)(房)(公)(积)(金)(制)(度)(配)(合)(住)(房)(市)(场)(化)(改)(革)(推)(出)(,用)(以)(提)(高)(福)(利)(分)(房)(取)(消)(后)(员)(工)(的)(购)(房)(支)(付)(能)(力)(。当)(前)(,城)(市)(商)(品)(房)(普)(及)(,住)(房)(公)(积)(金)(完)(成)(了)(最)(初)(任)(务)(,随)(着)(房)(价)(持)(续)(上)(涨)(,其)(原)(有)(的)(保)(障)(功)(能)(慢)(慢)(退)(化)(。
  董)(登)(新)(认)(为)(,合)(并)(为)(强)(制)(公)(积)(金)(后)(,能)(使)(资)(金)("放)(在)(更)(宝)(贵)(更)(重)(要)(的)(位)(置)(去)(积)(累)("。
  不)(过)(,企)(业)(和)(员)(工)(是)(否)(有)(积)(极)(性)(建)(立)("强)(制)(公)(积)(金)("是)(这)(一)(设)(想)(的)(最)(大)(未)(知)(数)(。住)(房)(公)(积)(金)(可)(通)(过)(买)(房)(、租)(房)(、装)(修)(等)(渠)(道)(提)(取)(,企)(业)(和)(职)(工)(的)(缴)(费)(热)(情)(高)(,剩)(余)("五)(险)("则)(受)(到)(冷)(遇)(。
  齐)(传)(钧)(认)(为)(,若)(要)(进)(行)(制)(度)(合)(并)(,将)(住)(房)(公)(积)(金)(制)(度)(和)(待)(建)(立)(的)(养)(老)(金)(第)(三)(支)(柱)(——个)(人)(养)(老)(金)(账)(户)(打)(通)(,相)(对)(而)(言)(是)(更)(优)(的)(制)(度)(安)(排)(,人)(人)(都)(可)(以)(享)(有)(,且)(不)(受)(企)(业)(因)(素)(的)(影)(响)(。
  制)(度)(合)(并)(的)(办)(法)(实)(质)(上)(绕)(开)(了)(对)(基)(本)(养)(老)(金)("动)(刀)(子)("的)(难)(题)(,借)(助)(外)(力)(实)(现)(对)(二)(三)(支)(柱)(的)(积)(累)(。但)(对)(基)(本)(养)(老)(金)(的)(问)(题)(仍)(无)(法)(回)(避)(。
  当)(前)(,中)(央)(每)(年)(对)(支)(付)(困)(难)(地)(区)(进)(行)(大)(量)(的)(转)(移)(支)(付)(,而)(宽)(裕)(地)(区)(的)(养)(老)(基)(金)(同)(时)(面)(临)(巨)(大)(的)(贬)(值)(风)(险)(。
  在)(郑)(秉)(文)(看)(来)(,提)(升)(制)(度)(效)(率)(迫)(切)(需)(要)(提)(升)(统)(筹)(层)(次)(。全)(国)(上)(千)(个)(统)(筹)(单)(位)(中)(约)(有)(三)(分)(之)(一)(不)(能)(参)(与)(投)(资)(,造)(成)(巨)(大)(浪)(费)(。
  提)(升)(统)(筹)(层)(次)(,基)(本)(能)(解)(决)(部)(分)(省)(份)(当)(期)(的)(收)(支)(缺)(口)(,有)(三)(种)(模)(式)(可)(选)(:各)(地)(统)(一)(费)(率)(、费)(基)(、工)(作)(流)(程)(等)(要)(素)(的)("六)(统)(一)("模)(式)(,但)(目)(前)(各)(地)(缴)(费)(率)(呈)(现)(差)(异)(,并)(不)(适)(用)(;渐)(进)(模)(式)(,即)(将)(企)(业)(缴)(纳)(的)(20%的)(养)(老)(金)(逐)(步)(全)(部)(或)(部)(分)(归)(集)(到)(中)(央)(;断)(崖)(式)(模)(式)(,在)(某)(一)(个)(时)(点)(将)(所)(有)(的)(缴)(费)(一)(起)(上)(缴)(中)(央)(,此)(前)(沉)(淀)(在)(各)(省)(的)(资)(金)(由)(各)(省)(自)(己)(掌)(握)(,对)(于)(困)(难)(地)(区)(,中)(央)(和)(地)(方)(设)(计)(好)(支)(出)(的)(结)(构)(比)(例)(,待)(若)(干)(年)(后)(完)(全)(交)(由)(中)(央)(负)(责)(。
  一)(些)(学)(者)(认)(为)(,实)(现)(全)(国)(统)(筹)(以)(后)(,可)(通)(过)(划)(转)(国)(有)(资)(产)(等)(方)(式)(,将)(基)(本)(养)(老)(金)(中)(的)(社)(会)(统)(筹)(和)(个)(人)(账)(户)(相)(剥)(离)(,做)(实)(个)(人)(账)(户)(,再)(将)(这)(笔)(资)(金)(全)(部)(或)(部)(分)(地)(落)(实)(到)(第)(二)(支)(柱)(或)(第)(三)(支)(柱)(的)(个)(人)(养)(老)(金)(账)(户)(当)(中)(,以)(此)(鼓)(励)(多)(支)(柱)(的)(发)(展)(。
  对)(此)(,郑)(秉)(文)(认)(为)(,将)(账)(户)(完)(全)(做)(实)(,所)(需)(资)(金)(量)(太)(大)(,难)(以)(一)(步)(到)(位)(,名)(义)(账)(户)(制)(是)(一)(个)(可)(取)(的)(、向)(累)(积)(制)(过)(渡)(的)(安)(排)(,因)(为)(账)(户)(中)(并)(没)(有)(实)(际)(的)(现)(金)(,而)(是)(记)(账)(给)(予)(利)(率)(,通)(过)(多)(缴)(多)(得)(的)(方)(式)(激)(励)(人)(们)(参)(与)(到)(制)(度)(中)(,缓)(解)(基)(本)(养)(老)(金)(的)(压)(力)(。
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